Divergent diploid genomes have been combined to produce new polyploid species by spontaneous hybridization between diploid (or diploid with tetraploid) Triticum or Aegilops species. search for landrace accessions with superior common bunt (stinking smut) resistance by collection site in Google maps Vavilov's journeys The first great wheat collector, Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov's journeys across Five Continents in the 1920's as indicated by the collection sites of his accessions to the VIR genebank.. pop-over text and pop-up images Given its importance, extensive marker-assisted breeding of wheat varieties has been undertaken to improve the quality and reliability of cultivated wheat but requires the isolation of genetic elements responsible for phenotypes of interest. Triticum sphaerococcum ingår i släktet veten, och familjen gräs. In the 1950s growing awareness of the genetic similarity (including some shared genomes) of the wild goatgrasses led some botanists to amalgamate Aegilops and Triticum as one genus, Triticum.This approach is still followed by some (mainly geneticists), but has not been widely adopted by taxonomists. This result makes sense because Tasg-D1 was found to downregulate brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. (B) Spikelets from OE-Tasg-D1 plants are shorter than those from OE-TaSG-D1 or wild-type plants. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid-insensitive dwarf12 mutants are semidominant and defective in a glycogen synthase kinase 3β-like kinase. 100: 686-689. These early analyses used inheritance analyses to predict that the hypothetical s gene is incompletely dominant, and the authors confirmed this prediction by examining the segregation ratio of grain shape using the offspring of a residual heterozygous line generated by a common wheat HS2 (a large-grained wheat cultivar) and T. sphaerococcum. 8: e25928. Index words: subtribe Triticinae, Aegilops, Triticum, ploidy level, isozymes. D genome. (A) Relative to the Fielder wild type, plants overexpressing Tasg-D1 (OE-Tasg-D1) show dwarfism, while plants overexpressing TaSG-D1 (OE-TaSG-D1) are marginally taller than wild-type plants. However, BRs are also known to regulate many other physiological processes, including those responsible for the pleiotropic phenotypes observed here (Zhu et al., 2013). ↵[OPEN] Articles can be viewed without a subscription. Analysis of the resulting plant and grain morphology revealed that lines containing OE-TaSG-D1 (cloned from HS2) showed longer grains than control plants, while lines containing OE-Tasg-D1 (cloned from ND4332) showed shorter, rounder grains (see figure). WHEAT TAXONOMY Reclassification of Triticum according to Löve 1984, with nomenclatural corrections.. (2020). Genetic variability for seedling root number within the genus Triticum was characterized to determine if this trait could be used in wheat breeding. The authors also overexpressed the coding sequence of the HS2 and ND4332 Tasg-D1 alleles under the control of the Ubiquitin promotor in wheat cv Fielder. The wheat varieties included six diploid, eight tetraploid, seven hexaploid and three octoploid species together with wheat relatives containing different genomes. By using our website, you agree to our use of cookies in accordance with our, Round Effects: Tasg-D1 is Responsible for Grain Shape in Indian Dwarf Wheat, Plant Biology 2020 Worldwide Summit(Archive), Subscribe to the Plant Science Research Weekly, Submit your Science Event to our Calendar, *All Plantae content is licensed under a Creative Commons A-NC 2.0 License, © 2020 American Society of Plant Biologists. Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Due to multiple ploidy events that occurred during domestication and improvement, the subgenomes of hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat spp can be challenging to map. Six subspecies of hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) have been identified, but the origin of Indian dwarf wheat ( Triticum sphaerococcum ), the only subspecies with round grains, is currently unknown. Triticum sphaerococcum var. In seeds, BR-deficient mutations have been linked to short cell length in seed tissue, resulting in rounder, less elongated grain (Jiang and Lin, 2013). All rights reserved. (2020) used positional cloning to identify and functionally characterize a gene linked to grain shape, designated Tasg-D1, near the centromere of chromosome 3 of the T. sphaerococcum Perc. A similar analysis of a TaSG-A1 homeolog with a mutation in the TREE domain showed that this gene may also be implicated in grain shape. The genus Triticum includes the wild and domesticated species usually thought of as wheat.. The authors then tested whether the round grain phenotype was caused by a similar mechanism in T. sphaerococcum by obtaining premature termination mutants for the TaSG-D1 haplotype from the ND4332 line. The gene C that controls compact spike in hexaploid wheat T. sphaerococcum is not allelic to gene C ... ploidy … Appl. We do not capture any email address. Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. Wheat (Triticum spp.) Salina, E., Borner, A., Leonova, I., Korzun, V., Laikova, L., Maystrenko, O., and Roder, M. (2000). Triticum aestivum is a cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding) and as such is only known in cultivation. The authors noted that Tasg-D1 expression was pleiotropic, affecting plant morphological traits (including plant height and spikelet morphology) as well as grain shape and thousand-grain weight. OE-Tasg-D1 plants also showed delayed flowering, shorter plant and spikelet height, and lower thousand-grain weight than control plants. In seeds, BR-deficient mutations have been linked to short cell length in seed tissue, resulting in rounder, less elongated grain (Jiang and Lin, 2013). Average seedling root numbers were determined in the laboratory for 143 accessions of wheat including the diploid species Triticum boeoticum Boiss., T. monococcum L., and T. urartu Tum. sphaerococcum gene used in this study. Taken together, these results indicate that Tasg-D1 negatively regulates cell elongation, thereby causing both the round grain phenotype and several other pleiotropic effects. Plant Physiol. Grains of T. sphaerococcum are hemispherical, with a shallow crease. A previous study in rice (Oryza sativa) showed that overexpression of a GSK protein with a mutated TREE domain disrupted seed elongation, causing plants to produce round grains (Tong et al., 2012). has been an important staple food crop for mankind since the beginning of agriculture. Given this difference, the identification of Tasg-D1 as the gene responsible for the round-grain phenotype may permit the future breeding or genetic engineering of round-grained wheat cultivars that better optimize wheat productivity by enhancing flour extraction rate. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from August to September. A previous study in rice showed that overexpression of a GSK protein with a mutated TREE domain disrupted seed elongation, causing plants to produce round grains (Tong et al., 2012). 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